AboutContactsEditorial StaffEditorial CouncilArchiveFor AuthorsFor Reviewers

Methodology for Developing Educational and Rehabilitation Programs for Offending Drivers In European Countries (Review of Literature)

Journal «MEDICINA» ¹ 4, 2023, pp.55-78 (Reviews)


Burtsev A. A.
MD, PhD, Leading Researcher1
ORCID 0000-0003-2710-1285

Plotnikova M. A.
Methodologist, Department of Postgraduate Education2
ORCID 0000-0001-5662-6780

1 - Moscow Research and Practical Centre on Addictions, Moscow, Russian Federation
2 - Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Moscow, Russian Federation

Corresponding Author

Plotnikova Margarita; å-mail: m.plotnikova@mail.ru

Conflict of interest

None declared.


The study had no sponsorship.


Over the past decades, in the EU countries, educational and rehabilitation interventions for drivers who have committed gross violations of the traffic rules, including driving under influence of alcohol, have become a common addition to traditional administrative and criminal measures. Initially, intervention programs in European countries were differentiated depending on the type of traffic violation. Thus, the intervention programs for drunk drivers differed significantly from the programs for drivers who exceeded the speed limit. Later the results of scientific research proved the feasibility of using a different methodological approach when creating intervention programs for offending drivers, which was based on the study of their behaviour patterns, socio-demographic characteristics and psychological profiles. The practical implementation of this approach made it possible to conclude that complex intervention programs that include all types of gross violations of traffic rules and are differentiated in accordance with violators’ profiles, are highly effective. The recommendations under consideration also concern such a gross violation of traffic rules as driving while intoxicated which is characterized by high latency of its commission in road traffic. Despite the universality of such intervention programs for certain profiles of violating drivers, in relation to drunk drivers the authors suggest the initial differentiation of the latter, taking into account the presence or absence of alcohol addiction, since this information is significant in determining the profile of the driver. Accordingly, the presence or absence of addiction among drunk drivers is one of the main criteria for choosing an intervention program based on the profile of the offending driver. The review presents scientific interest, given the existing negative trends in road traffic injuries associated with driving under influence in the Russian Federation.

Key words

driver, driver intoxication, alcohol intoxication, drunk driving prevention, vehicle, traffic rules, violating drivers, educational program, rehabilitation program, driver rehabilitation, intervention



1. Burcev A.A. Medicinskij i pravovoj aspekty profilaktiki avtodorozhnogo travmatizma, svjazannogo s op'janeniem voditelja transportnogo sredstva: monografija [Medical and legal aspects of the prevention of road injuries associated with the intoxication of the driver of the vehicle]. Moscow: Techpolygraphcenter, 2017. (In Russ.)

2. Panosch E. The development of driver improvement and retraining in Austria. Psychology in Austria 2001; 21(3): 218-28.

3. Burcev A.A., Kirzhanova V.V., Bakanov K.S. Social'no-demograficheskie harakteristiki voditelej, sovershivshih dorozhno-transportnye proisshestvija v sostojanii op'janenija v Moskve v 2014-2019 gg. [Socio-demographic characteristics of drivers who have committed road traffic accidents while intoxicated in Moscow in 2014-2019]. Narkologiya [Narcology] 2021; 20(7): 40-51, doi: 10.25557/1682-8313.2021.07.40-51 (In Russ.)

4. Boets S., Meesmaan U., Klipp S., Bukasa B., Braun E., Panosch E. et al. State of the Art on Driver Rehabilitation: Literature Analysis and Provider Survey. Belgian Road Safety Institute, 2008, 61 š. Available at: https://www.vias.be/publications/DRUID­%20-­%20Deliverable­%205.1.1­%20-­%20State­%20of­%20the­%20art­%20on­%20driver­%20rehabilitation­%20-­%20Literature­%20analysis­%20&­%20provider­%20survey/DRUID-5.1.1.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023.

5. Bukasa B. Evaluation of rehabilitation models for different types of traffic offenders. 2nd International Traffic Expert Congress Vienna, 2007. Š. 102-105.

6. Best practices in road safety. Handbook for measures at the European level. The Final Report of SUPREME, 2007. Available at: https://trimis.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/project/documents/supreme­_d­_handbook­_for­_measures­_at­_the­_european­_level.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023.

7. Klauer S.G., Sudweeks J., Hickman J.S., Neale V.L. How risky is it? An assessment of the relative risk of engaging in potentially unsafe driving behaviors. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 2006. 92 p. Available at: https://www.radarsign.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/How­_Risky­_Is­_It-An­_assessment­_of­_the­_relative­_risk­_of­_engaging­_in­_potentially­_unsafe­_driving­_behaviors-AAA­_Foundation.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023

8. Neyens D.M., Boyle L.N. The effect of distractions on the crash types of teenage drivers. Accid. Anal. Prev. 2007; 39(1): 206-212, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2006.07.004

9. Jonah B.A. Age differences in risky driving. Health Educ. Res. 1990; 5(2): 139-149, doi: 10.1093/her/5.2.139

10. Begg D, Langley J. Changes in risky driving behavior from age 21 to 26 years. Journal of Safety Research 2001; 32(4): 491-499, doi: 10.1016/S0022-4375(01)00059-7

11. Williams A.F. Risky driving behavior among adolescents. In: Jessor R., ed. New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1998. P. 221-237.

12. Owsley C. Vision and driving in the elderly. Optom. Vis. Sci. 1994, 71(12): 727-735.

13. Gulliver P., Begg D. Personality factors as predictors of persistent risky driving behavior and crash involvement among young adults. Injury Prevention 2007; 13(6): 376-381, doi: 10.1136/ip.2007.015925

14. Ulleberg P. Personality subtypes of young drivers. Relationship to risk-taking preferences, accident involvement, and response to a traffic safety campaign. Transportation research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior 2001; 4(4): 279-97, doi: 10.1016/S1369-8478(01)00029-8

15. Ulleberg P., Rundmo T. Personality, attitudes and risk perception as predic-tors of risky driving behavior among young drivers. Safety Science 2003; 41(5): 427-43. doi: 10.1016/S0925-7535(01)00077-7

16. Lucidi F., Giannini A.M., Sgalla R., Mallia L., Devoto A., Reichmann S. Young novice driver subtypes: Relationship to driving violations, errors and lapses. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2010; 42(6): 1689-1696. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.04.008

17. Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and risk taking. In: Emotions in personality and psychopathology. Springer, Boston, 1979. P. 161-197. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-2892-6­_7

18. Marengo D., Settanni M., Vidotto G. Drivers’ subtypes in a sample of Italian adolescents: Relationship between personality measures and driving behaviors. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 2012; 15(5): 480-490, doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2012.04.001

19. Cestac J., Paran F., Delhomme P. Young drivers’ sensation seeking, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control and their roles in predicting speeding intention: How risk-taking motivation evolve with gender and driving experience. Safety Science 2011; 49(3): 424-432, doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2010.10.007

20. Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking and risky behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychology Association, 2007. 309 š.

21. Dahlen E.R., White R.P. The Big Five factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger in the prediction of unsafe driving. Personality & Individual Differences 2006; 41(5): 903-915, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.03.016

22. Iversen H., Rundmo T. Personality, risky driving, and accident involvement among Norwegian drivers. Personality & Individual Differences 2002; 33(8): 1251-1263, doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00010-7

23. Machin M.A., Sankey K.S. Relationships between young drivers’ personality characteristics, risk perceptions and driving behavior. Accident analysis & prevention 2008; 40(2): 541-547, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.08.010

24. Burns P.C., Wilde G.J.S. Risk taking in male taxi drivers: Relationships among personality, observational data and driver records. Personality & Individual Differences 1995; 18(2): 267-278, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00150-Q

25. Nordfjaern T., Jorgensen S.H., Rundmo T. An investigation of driver attitudes and behavior in rural and urban areas in Norway. Safety Science 2010; 48(3): 348-56, doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2009.12.001

26. Arnett J.J., Offer D., Fine M.A. Reckless driving in adolescence: ‘State’ and ‘trait’ factors. Accident analysis & prevention 1997; 29(1): 57-63. doi: 10.1016/s0001-4575(97)87007-8

27. Underwood G., Chapman P., Wright S., Crundall D. Anger while driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 1999; 2(1): 55-68, doi: 10.1016/S1369-8478(99)00006-6

28. Dahlen E.R., Martin R.C., Ragan K., Kuhlman M.M. Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2005; 37(2): 341-348, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2004.10.006

29. Steinberg L., Albert D., Cauffman E., Banich M., Graham S., Woolard J.L. Age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity as indexed by behavior and self-report: Evidence for a dual-systems model. Developmental Psychology 2008; 44(6): 1764-1778, doi: 10.1037/a0012955

30. Wallston Ź. Control Beliefs: Health Perspectives. In: International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2001. P. 2724-2726, doi: 10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03799-2

31. Lajunen T., Summala H. Driving experience, personality, and skill and safety motive dimensions in drivers’ self-assessments. Personality & Individual Differences 1995; 19(3): 307-318, doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(95)00068-H

32. Ozkan T., Lajunen T. Multidimensional traffic locus of control scale (T-LOC): Factor structure and relationship to risky driving. Personality & Individual Differences 2005; 38(3): 533-545, doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.05.007

33. Janicak C.A. Predicting accidents at work with measures of locus of control and job hazards. Psychological Reports 1996; 78(1): 115-121. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1996.78.1.115

34. Cohen P.A., Sheposh J.P., Hillix W.A. Situational and personality influences on risk-taking behavior: Effects of task, sex, and locus of control. Academic Psychology Bulletin 1979; 1(1): 63-67.

35. Parry M.H. Aggression on the Road: A Pilot Study of Behaviour in the Driving Situation. Tavistock Publications, 1968. 138 p.

36. Raymond A. Youth and Its Problems. International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, 7th Proceedings. Melbourne, 1979: 569-578. Available at: https://trid.trb.org/Results?q=&serial=%22International­%20Conference­%20on­%20Alcohol%2C­%20Drugs­%20and­%20Traffic­%20Safety 7th%2C­%201977%2C­%20Melbourne%2C­%20Australia%22 Accessed: 12.07.2023.

37. Kaiser G. Offences and Typology of Young Traffic Offenders. Blutalkohol 1978; 15(2): 65-81.

38. Rhodes N., Pivik K. Age and gender differences in risky driving: The roles of positive affect and risk perception. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2011; 43(3): 923-931, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.11.015

39. Deery H.A., Fildes B.N. Young novice driver subtypes: Relationship to high risk behavior, traffic accident record, and simulator driving performance. Human Factors 1999; 41(4): 628-643, doi: 10.1518/001872099779656671

40. Struckman-Johnson C., Gaster S., Struckman-Johnson D., Johnson M., May-Shinagle G. Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2015; 74: 218-228, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.001

41. Deery H.A., Love A.W. The Driving Expectancy Questionnaire: development, psychometric assessment and predictive utility among young drink-drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 1996; 57: 193-202, doi: 10.15288/JSA.1996.57.193

42. Chipman M.L., Macgregor C.G., Smiley A.M., Lee-Gosselin M. The role of exposure in comparisons of crash risk among different drivers and driving environments. Accident Analysis & Prevention 1993; 25(2): 207-211, doi: 10.1016/0001-4575(93)90061-z

43. Young Drivers: The Road to Safety. Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Conference of Ministers of Transport Report ITRD. OECD Publishing, Paris, France, 2006. 260 p.

44. Trick L.M., Enne J.T., Mills J., Varik J. Paying attention behind the wheel: a framework for studying the role of attention in driving. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 2004; 5(5): 385-424, doi: 10.1080/14639220412331298938

45. McCartt A.T., Shabanova V.I., Leaf W.A. Driving experience, crashes and traffic citations of teenage beginning drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2003; 35(3): 311-320. doi: 10.1016/s0001-4575(02)00006-4

46. Gregersen N.P., Berg H.Y., Engström I., Nolen S., Nyberg A., Rimmo P.A. Sixteen years age limit for learner drivers in Sweden – An evaluation of safety effects. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2000; 32(1): 25-35, doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(99)00045-7

47. Feng J., Donmez B. Designing feedback to induce safer driving behaviors: A literature review and a model of driver–feedback interaction. Technical Report of Toyota Collaborative Safety Research Center (CSRC). Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Toronto, 2013. 65 p.

48. Patten Ch.J.D, Kircher A., Ostlund J., Nilsson L., Svenson O. Driver experience and cognitive workload in different traffic environments. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2006; 38(5): 887-894, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2006.02.014

49. Makishita H., Matsunaga K. Differences of drivers’ reaction times according to age and mental workload. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2008; 40(2): 567-575. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.08.012

50. Brumbelow M.L., Jermakian J.S. Injury risks and crashworthiness benefits for females and males: Which differences are physiological? Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2021. Š. 1-6, doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11646.72009

51. Maycock G., Lockwood G.R., Lester J. The Accident Liability of Car Drivers. Department of Transport, TRL Report RR 315. Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Laboratory, England, 1991. 38 š.

52. Blockley P., Hartley L. Aberrant driving behavior: errors and violations. Ergonomics 1995; 38(9): 1759-1771, doi: 10.1080/00140139508925225

53. Lawton R., Parker D., Stradling S., Manstead A. The role of affect in predicting social behaviors: the case of road traffic violations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 1997; 27(14): 1258-1276, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01805.x

54. Reason J., Manstead A., Stradling S., Baxter J., Campbell K. Errors and violations on the road: a real distinction? Ergonomics 1990; 33(10-11): 1315-1332, doi: 10.1080/00140139008925335

55. Wilsnack S.C., Wilsnack R.W. Epidemiology of Women's Drinking. Journal of Substance Abuse 1991; 3(2): 133-157, doi: 10.1016/s0899-3289(05)80033-1

56. Schwartz J. Effects of Diverse Forms of Family Structure on Female and Male Homicide. Journal of Marriage & Family 2006; 68(5): 1291-1312, doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00329.x

57. World report on road traffic injury prevention. WHO, 2004. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260288299­_World­_Report­_on­_Road­_Traffic­_Injury­_Prevention Accessed: 12.07.2023

58. Schulze H., Schumacher M., Urmeew R., Auerbach K. DRUID Final Report: Work performed, main results and recommendations. Federal Highway Research Institute, Germany, 2012. Available at: https://www.vias.be/publications/DRUID­%20-­%20Final­%20Report­%20-­%20Work­%20performed,­%20main­%20results­%20and­%20recommendations/DRUID-Final­%20Report.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023

59. Hubicka B., Laurell H., Bergman H. Criminal and alcohol problems among Swedish drunk drivers – Predictors of DUI relapse. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 2008; 31(6): 471-478, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.09.003 10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.09.003

60. Nochajski T.H., Stasiewicz P.R. Relapse to driving under the influence (DUI): A review Clinical Psychology Review 2006; 26(2): 179-195, doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.11.006

61. Hedlund J.H., McCartt A.T. Drunk Driving: Seeking Additional Solutions. Washington, DC: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 2002. 99 p.

62. Silverans P., Nieuwkamp R., Van den Berghe W. Expected effects of point systems and other recidivism measures while driving. Research report ¹ 2018-R-07-SEN. Brussels, Belgium: Vias institute – Knowledge Centre Road Safety, 2018. Available at: https://www.vias.be/publications/Verwachte­%20effect­%20van­%20puntensystemen/Expected­_effects­_of­_demerit­_point­_systems.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023

63. Ojaniemi K.K., Lintonen T.P., Impinen A., OLillsunde P.M., Ostamo A.I. Trends in driving under the influence of drugs: A register-based study of DUID suspects during 1977-2007. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2009; 41(1): 191-196, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.10.011

64. Davies G.P., Broughton J. Criminal and motoring convictions of high risk drink/drivers. In D.R. Mayhew and C. Dussault (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th international conference on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety, Montreal, 2002. Š. 153-158.

65. Nallet N., Bernarda M., Chiron M. Individuals taking a French driving license points recovery course: Their attitudes towards violations. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2008; 40(6): 1836-1843, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.08.014

66. Masten S.V., Raymond C.P. Problem driver remediation: A meta-analysis of the driver improvement literature. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-safety-research Journal of Safety Research 2004; 35(4): 403-425, doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2004.06.002

67. Twenge J.M. Birth cohort changes in extraversion: a cross-temporal meta-analysis 1966-1993. Personality & Individual Differences 2001; 30(5): 735-748. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00066-0

68. Field A.E., Austin S.B., Frazier A.L., Gillman M.W., Camargo Jr. C.A., Colditz G.A. Smoking, getting drunk, and engaging in bulimic behaviors: in which order are the behaviors adopted? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2002; 41(7): 846-853, doi: 10.1097/00004583-200207000-00018

69. Ross R.R., Antonowicz D.H. Antisocial drivers: Prosocial driver training for prevention and rehabilitation. Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 2004. 212 š.

70. Taubaman-Ben-Ari O., Yehiel D. Driving styles and their associations with personality and motivation. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2011; 45: 416-422, doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2011.08.007

71. Rothenberger B.P. Solidarity in traffic – A look at the future. 2nd International Traffic Expert Congress, Vienna. June 14th-15th 2007.

72. Bailey S., Lennon A., Watson B. Getting mad may not mean getting even: The influence of drivers’ ethical ideologies on driving anger and related behavior. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behavior 2016; 36(5): 104-116, doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2015.11.004

73. Fylan F., Stradling S. Comparison of Driver Alertness and the National Driver Improvement Scheme. The Association of Chief Police Officers of England, Wales and Northern Ireland («ACPO»), 2010, 40 š. Available at: https://ukr-resources-4.s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/08181406/ACPO-ANDISP­_Final­_report­_on­_Driver­_Alertness­_v1.0.pdf Accessed: 12.07.2023.

74. Harre N. Risk Evaluation, Driving, and Adolescents: A Typology. Developmental Review 2000; 20(2), 206-226, doi: 10.1006/drev.1999.0498

75. Kluppels L. Educational measures for road offenders. Brussels: Editions Politeia SA, 2017. 57 š.